Thursday, November 25, 2021

Iris Publishers| Wish you Happy Thanksgiving Day

 


It’s time to wish on the occasion of Thanksgiving Day. We feel it as a merriment moment for each, so we Wish you Happy Thanksgiving Day to you and your family. Have a lovely joyful day!

Wednesday, November 24, 2021

Iris Publishers-Open access Journal of Otolaryngology and Rhinology | Evaluation of Saccular Function with cVEMP In Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

 


Authored by  Tuba Turkman*

Abstract

Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a disease characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and vestibular disorders. Studies have shown that vestibular symptoms are quite common in patients with SLE. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test and saccular dysfunction and the possible relationship between SLE and vertigo in patients with SLE.

Materials and methods: Forty-six SLE patients (aged 18-40 years) and forty healthy volunteers (aged 20-40 years) were included in the study. Patients with SLE were questioned about their duration of the disease, hearing status and balance. Pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry and cVEMP tests were performed to all patients in SLE and control groups.

Results: When P1 and N1 latencies were compared by the cVEMP in SLE and control groups, P1 and N1 latencies of the left and right ears of the SLE group were found to be significantly longer than the control group (p <0.05). In twenty-six SLE patients with vertigo, P1 and N1 latencies were significantly longer than patients with SLE without vertigo. There was also a significant relationship between vertigo and duration of the disease (p <0.05). It was found that the rates of saccular dysfunction were higher in patients with SLE.

Conclusion: This study showed a strong association between the balance disorders and SLE which is an autoimmune disease. Patients with SLE had a higher rate of saccular dysfunction, and there was a significant relationship between duration of the disease and vertigo.

Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus; Saccular function; cVEMP

Introduction

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an idiopathic, chronic, autoimmune connective tissue disease that may affect all organs and systems. The disease usually begins between 16-55 years of age and the rate of prevalence among women and men is 1/9-10 [1]. In SLE patients, sensorineural hearing loss and ear symptoms were first identified by Kastanioudakis et al. [2] and Sperling et al. [3]. In patients with SLE, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus and vestibular disorders have been detected [4,5]. The clinical presentation of SLE may be moderate or severe. All organs are susceptible to the disease during the process [6]. In a questionnaire, the frequency of audio vestibular symptoms, including vertigo, has been found significantly higher in SLE patients than the control subjects [7,8]. In a histopathological study, the mean density of type I cells in peripheral vestibular sensory epithelium has been found significantly lower in patients with SLE [9]. The production of humoral antibody, immune complexes and autoantibodies circulating in SLE are the main causes of organ damage. The presence of vasculitis in the stria vascularis, spiral ligament and internal auditory artery may cause otologic symptoms [3].

The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of vertigo and saccular function with cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test in patients with normal hearing who were diagnosed with SLE and had no other systemic disease.

Materials and Methods

This study was carried out with the consent of the cases in the Audiology Unit of the Department of Otorhinolaryngology. The ethics committee approval was obtained with the decision of the Ethics Committee of the Research on Humans to be held on people, dated 20/11/2018 and numbered 294626. Forty-four SLE patients between 18-40 years (mean 33.18±6.5 years) and forty healthy volunteers between 20-40 years (mean 31.3±6.2) were included in the study [10]. All patients were administered with steroid + hydroxychloroquine. Patients with SLE were divided into three groups according to the duration of the disease (Group 1: 1-5 years, Group 2: 6-10 years, Group 3: 11 years and above).

The inclusion criteria for the SLE groups were the definitive diagnosis of SLE, normal otological findings, immittance audiometry levels in normal range, bilateral acoustic reflexes and having a pure-tone average (PTA) within normal range [11]. The inclusion criteria for the control group were the absence of any known systemic and chronic diseases, normal otological findings, immittance audiometry levels in normal range, bilateral acoustic reflexes and having a pure tone average within normal range [11]. All of the patients in the SLE group and control group underwent ear examination, pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry and cVEMP tests. The duration of the disease, hearing status and vertigo in SLE patients were recorded.

Performing and recording of cVEMP test

In cVEMP tests; two separate waveforms were obtained and recorded by averaging 250 responses to the stimuli delivered at the repetition rate of 7.1/sec with an intensity level of 105dB nHL using the click stimulus at alternating polarity, 80 msec recording range, 10 Hz / 1kHz filter interval. In cVEMP measurements, Medelec Brand Synergy Model ABR device (Natus, A.B.D.) and standard intra-auricular TDH-49P headphones were used.

During recording, the gold-plated disc electrodes were placed as follows; the active electrode in the middle of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, the reference electrode on the sternoclavicular joint where the SCM muscle attached to the sternum, and the ground electrode at the center of the forehead. During the application, the patient was asked to turn the head to the opposite side of the ear to be tested during the test while sitting. The impedance difference between the electrodes was below 3 kΩ. In our study, the change rate of mean peak latencies of P1-N1 biphasic waves were evaluated according to the ears, age, duration of disease and presence of vertigo with a stimulus delivered with a repetition rate of 7.1/sec and intensity level of 105 dB nHL.

Statistical analyses

The data were first transferred to Microsoft Office Excel and analyzed using SPSS 22.0 (IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY, USA) program. Categorical measurements were summarized as numbers and percentages, and numerical measurements as mean and standard deviation (median and minimum-maximum where necessary). The Kolmogorov Smirnov test was used to determine whether the variables showed normal distribution according to the groups. Independent Samples T test was used to compare numerical measurements between groups. Dependent T-test (paired t-test) was used to compare dependent numerical measurements. Kruskal Wallis test was used for general comparison between groups with more than two numerical measurements which are not normally distributed for the cases that were significant in this comparison, Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test was used for pairwise comparison of groups. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient and the corresponding p-value were obtained to examine the interaction between the numerical measurements. Statistical significance level was taken as 0.05 in all tests.

Results

Forty-four SLE patients and forty healthy volunteers were included in the study. No statistically significant difference was observed between the study and control groups in terms of patient ages. The disease duration of patients in the SLE group was between 1-25 years. The cVEMP results of the patients with 1-5 years, 6-10 years and 11 years and above of disease duration were evaluated. When P1/N1 latencies of SLE and control groups were compared, it was observed that the P1/N1 latencies of the right and left ears of the patients with SLE were significantly longer than the control group (p <0.05) (Table 1). No difference was found between right and left ear latencies of SLE patients and control group. In the SLE group, 26 (59%) of the 44 patients had vertigo. The P1 and N1 latencies were significantly longer in SLE patients with vertigo than those without vertigo. There was also a significant relationship between vertigo and disease duration (p <0.05) (Table 2).

When the groups were compared in terms of duration of the disease and frequency of vertigo, 6/18 (33.3%), 10/14 (71%) and 10/12 (83%) patients with a duration of disease between 1 and 5 years, 6-10 years, and 11 years and above had vertigo, respectively. It was found that the frequency of vertigo increased as the duration of the disease increased (Table 4).

Discussion

SLE is an extremely complex and multifactorial autoimmune disease with unknown etiology, caused by various genetic and environmental factors, characterized by the presence of autoantibodies, involving multiple organs [12]. Several studies have shown that vasculitis develops in the capillaries and arterioles due to autoimmune complex accumulation. Temporal bone studies have reported the presence of antiphospholipid syndrome and vascular thrombosis mechanisms that cause the accumulation of free radicals in the cochlea and stria vascularis [13]. Ear-related symptoms of SLE are chronic otitis media, progressive sensorineural hearing loss and vertigo. Viral infections, vascular lesions and immune mechanisms can all be effective in internal ear damage [14]. In addition, if the levels of circulating DNA-anti-DNA exceeds the level of cleansing capacity of the immune complexes, these immune complexes can accumulate in various tissues, including glomerulus, and may cause local damage [15].

Vestibular symptoms are quite common in patients with SLE [16]. In addition, the presence of audio vestibular disorder, endolymphatic and cochlear hydrops in patients with SLE have also been reported [17,18]. A strong relationship between SLE and balance disorders has been suggested, but the association of vestibular system in patients with SLE has not been fully investigated [19]. In our study, vertigo status and duration of the disease were investigated in patients with SLE and saccular function was evaluated by cVEMP. In a study, investigating the relationship between SLE and saccular hydrops, cVEMP has been performed in thirty patients and P1-N1 latencies were shown to be prolonged [20]. In another study, twenty patients with SLE underwent cVEMP testing and P1-N1 latencies were seen to be significantly prolonged [21]. However, no evidence of vestibular system has been found in both studies. Relationships between disease duration and latency of cVEMP have not been investigated in these studies.

In our study, when P1 and N1 latencies were compared between forty-four SLE patients and forty control subjects, P1 and N1 latencies of the left and right ears of the SLE patients were found to be significantly longer than the control group (p <0.05). In addition, 26 (59%) SLE patients with vertigo had significantly longer P1 and N1 latency values than SLE patients without vertigo. Also, there was a significant relationship between vertigo and disease duration (p <0.05).

In another study, electronystagmography (ENG) has been performed in SLE patients and abnormal findings have been found to be significantly higher than healthy subjects [18]. Another study confirmed the presence of abnormalities in the vestibular system via videonystagmography (VNG) and dynamic posturography in pediatric patients with SLE [16].

In a histopathological study, type I hair cells of the cristas in the three semicircular canals, saccular macula and utricular macula have been observed to be affected and the mean density of type I cells was lower in the SLE group when compared to the control group. However, type II hair cells were found to be unaffected. The intensity of type I and type II hair cells has not been associated with the duration of SLE [9]. In a study by Sone et al. [22], the temporal bone of the patients with SLE has been investigated using histopathologic methods and loss of spiral ganglion cells, loss of hair cells in varying degrees and atrophy in stria vascularis have been shown. Also, cochlear hydrops and stenosis in endolymphatic duct have been observed in seven cases. When the SLE group was compared with the control group, it has been observed that a significant amount of peripheral type vestibular pathology is present in the SLE group.

Regarding this information, we aimed to evaluate the saccular function causing balance disorder by performing cVEMP in patients with SLE and to investigate the effect of duration of the disease on vestibular system. Previous histopathological studies performed with VNG and dynamic posturography have shown that the vestibular system is affected. In our study, it was found that saccular dysfunction was more and latencies were prolonged in patients with SLE who underwent cVEMP test. We showed that as the duration of the disease increased, latencies were prolonged in cVEMP. The results revealed that the frequency of vertigo was higher as the disease duration increased. The most important limitation of this study is the low number of cases and the fact that the vestibular test battery has not been used in which the entire vestibular system is evaluated. However, there are only two studies in literature on cVEMP testing in patients with SLE and the relationship between SLE, duration of the disease and vestibular system and their effect on latencies have not been evaluated. This is a different aspect of our study.

Conclusion

As a result, it was found that saccular dysfunction was more and latencies were prolonged in patients with SLE who underwent cVEMP test. We showed that as the duration of the disease increased, latencies were prolonged in cVEMP. The results revealed that the frequency of vertigo was higher as the disease duration increased. it should be kept in mind that vestibular system findings may occur in patients with SLE and we think that evaluation of vestibular system should be performed at certain intervals.

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Iris Publishers-Open access Journal of Otolaryngology and Rhinology | Carcinoma Lower Lip: Shaving and Reconstruction under Local Anesthesia

 


Authored by Md Ashraful Islam*

Abstract

The lips are one of the most important features of the face; and are functionally and aesthetically very important. It serves as border of the oral commissure, provides access to oral cavity and contributes to oral competence. It is important for verbal expression and fundamental for facial expression and overall appearance of face [1]. Excessive sun exposure and tobacco use, may develop cancer. The cancer can occur anywhere along the upper or lower lip but is most common on the lower lip. Most lip cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Surgery is the main stay of treatment and lip shave is an established modality for superficial lesion followed by reconstruction. Extensive surgery may be necessary for larger lesion. Careful planning and reconstruction can restore eating and speaking normally, and also achieve a satisfactory appearance after surgery. Evidence supports that the concept of lip reconstruction started as early as 1000 BC in the sacred texts of great Susruta, India [2]. Lip mucosa is very special and it is recommended to reconstruct the surgical defect with lip tissue whenever possible, as any other tissue is never comparable or can replace the lip tissue [3]. This is the example of this presented case.

Keywords: Lip squamous cell carcinoma (SCC); Lip shaving; Reconstruction

Introduction

The lips are complex and specialized structures and most mobile elements of lower part of face. It has aesthetic and functional role that cannot be replaced by other tissue of body. It is always better to replace the lip tissue with ones’ own tissue whenever possible. Majority of lip defect occurs due to trauma or tumor excision. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is relatively common in upper lip and SCC is more common in sun exposed part of lower lip. Both are common in elderly people. Small defect should be primarily closed locally but the decision making relies on a defect occupying more than half. Superficial defect involving vermilion of lip can be closed by vermilion mucosa only, if necessary, some mucosa can be undermined or advanced to cover the defect without any obvious deformity [3]. In this case, we would like to describe repair of such a defect created after shaving of the lower lip for a lip lesion. Several flaps have been described throughout the literatures but here we have mentioned the simplest method by which one can close a defect in an effective acceptable way with oncological safety.

Case Report

A 65-year-old lady reported to otolaryngology outpatient department (OPD0 with the complaint of a swelling in left half of lower lip for 6 months duration. She noticed a small nodular swelling in her left half of lower lip 6 months ago which was gradually increasing. She had no local pain or burning sensation. According to the statement of the patient, she developed a small similar swelling in the lower lip 5 years back which had disappeared with local homeopathy treatment. Again, she initially tried with the same homeopathy treatment for the present lesion with no improvement at all. On the contrary, the lesion started increasing in size with whitish discoloration of entire oral cavity including lower lip. There was alteration of taste and slight burning sensation in the oral cavity during taking meal. She was hypertensive but nondiabetic. She used to take betel leaf with slacked lime and nuts regularly. The lady was housewife and did not give any history of prolonged sun exposure.

On local examination there was an ulcero-prolipharative lesion in left half of lower lip measuring 2.5×1.5 cm, non-tender, indurated with irregular cauliflower like surface. It did not bleed on touch. The lesion was 1cm lateral to the angle of mouth and 0.5cm distal to the vermillion border. On intraoral examination there was extensive leukoplakia involving inner aspect of lips, buccal mucosa, palatal mucosa and tongue. There was no palpable lymph nodes in the neck (Figures 1-16).

(Figures 17-19) Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) was suggestive of chronic inflammatory lesion. Clinically it was a suspected case of SCC of lower lip. The incision line was infiltrated with 2% lidocaine with 1 in 200000 adrenaline solution. Planned excision with 6mm healthy margin all around was done under local anesthesia with a slice of orbicularis oris muscle was done. After excision, the area became a rectangular shape which was 3.5cmx2cmx1.5cm. the defect was reconstructed with a nearly 1.5cm×1.5cm advancement lip mucosa flap from the medial aspect and 0.5 cmx1.5 cm from the lateral aspect of the excision area. More than half of defect was covered with advancement flap. Outer (vermillion border) and inner incision line (gingival mucosa) was undermined to take some additional tissue. A portion of orbicularis oris muscle was raised and stitched in between outer vermillion border and inner gingival mucosa to fill the rest of the defect. The wound was closed in 2 layers with 3/0 vicryl suture without any significant tension. The patient was on oral cefuroxime for 10 days with antibiotic mouth wash for 5 days. She was allowed spoon feeding from the day of surgery. Stitches were removed on 5th POD.

On subsequent follow up there was no gap in between the lips during closer of mouth. It was cosmetically well acceptable. The lesion was histopathologically confirmed as Invasive Squamous Cell Carcinoma grade-I. The margin was free of tumor. There was no vascular invasion.

Discussion

Global estimates suggest increasing incidence of oral SCC. SCC constitutes 90% of oral malignant tumors. SCC is most common in lips after skin in the Head-Neck region. Among oral carcinoma, lip cancer is most common comprising nearly 35% of all. It is most likely due to sun exposure, although tobacco, alcohol, diet also plays role in the formation of Oral SCC. Majority of lip SCC arises in the vermillion border [4]. Lip cancer can arise both from superficial layer or full thickness (including muscle, skin) of lip. Treatment varies according to the site and extension of the lesion. For a superficial lesion involving lower lip- vermilionectomy [3,5] or “lip shave” [3,5] or “lip scalp” operation is an established treatment though most surgeons are accustomed to operate in full thickness for a superficial, medium to large sized lesion and to reconstruct the defect with different described flaps.

Lip shave is a simple procedure and can be done under local anesthesia. Aged patients with comorbidity can be the ideal group for local anesthesia in whom there is risk of General anesthetic drugs. Reconstruction with local lip mucosal advancement flap is easier. Gingivo-buccal mucosa can be undermined to take some additional tissue for reconstruction of local defect. There are several flaps described in the literature for reconstruction of lower lip defect like Abbe lip switch flap, Estlander flap, Karapandzic Flap and all these [6-10] is described to reconstruct full thickness lower lip defect with excellent outcome.

In the majority of cases, superficial defect of the lower lip best treated with full thickness wedge excision and primary closer in involve skin. up to one third of lip can be removed or excised by simple wedge excision and the defect can be closed primarily in layers [11,12]. Though in elderly patients it is much easier due to the tissue laxity and it can be safely done under local anesthesia without any anatomical defect [3].

Conclusion

Case selection is very important, as oncological outcome should have the ultimate priority rather reconstruction. One should have adequate case to case preoperative reconstruction planning. Whenever possible, reconstruction should be done with lip mucosa as it gives very good functional and aesthetic outcome.

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Tuesday, November 23, 2021

Iris Publishers-Open access Journal of Cardiology Research & Reports | Effect of Height Differences on the Retention and Wear Behaviour of Ball Attachment System Over Mandibular Dual Implants

 


Authored by Vidhya J*

Abstract

Purpose of the study: To comparatively evaluate the effect of height differences on the retention and wear behaviour of ball attachment system over mandibular dual implants.

Materials and methods: Two groups of twenty samples each containing polymerised master block of dual implant analogues at same height in Group 1 and dual implant analogues of different heights in Group 2 were fabricated along with ball abutments, nylon cap and metal housing. Qualitative analysis of samples for wear factor were carried out using stereomicroscope and quantitative analysis of retention force at baseline, 360, 720, 1080, 1440 insertion-removal cycles were determined using Universal testing machine. statistical analysis were carried out using independent ‘t’ test and paired sample ‘t’ test.

Results: Group I test samples, the sample mean obtained at baseline, 360, 720,1080, and 1440 cycles were 24.73N, 23.49N, 22.46N, 21.07N, & 19.28N respectively. Group II test samples, the sample mean obtained at baseline, 360, 720,1080 & 1440 cycles were 27.13N 25.80N, 24.16N, 22.73N and 21.85N respectively. comparison of the mean retention force of the test samples at baseline, 360 (3 months), 720 (6 months), 1080 (9 months) and after 1440 (12months) insertion-removal cycles within Group 1 and Group II using Paired sample ‘t’-test was statistically significant at all levels.

Conclusion: Retention force was found to be higher on dual implants placed at different heights in mandibular anterior region and is statistically significant and corroborated by the Lesser surface deformations of attachment system.

Keywords: Dental implants; Denture retention; Mandibular prosthesis; Prosthesis retention; Titanium

Introduction

Edentulism is considered as a poor health outcome and it often compromises the quality of life of edentulous people [1]. Complete edentulism is a condition that is most prevalent among the elderly population [1,2]. It has a negative impact on the masticatory function, speech, esthetics and on the quality of life. The prosthetic management of the completely edentulous patient has been a major challenge in dentistry [3,4]. Conventional complete denture have been a standard and classical treatment option for the completely edentulous patients for more than a century [1,3,5]. Conventional complete denture is commonly provided to completely edentulous patients to restore masticatory function and esthetics [1,5]. The complete denture wearers often encounter problems like difficulty in mastication, discomfort during speech along with poor stability and retention [1,5,6]. They are usually satisfied with the upper denture but the majority of them often struggle with the lower denture due to the lack of retention and stability [1,7].

Alveolar ridge resorption is one of the important factors which is associated with loss of stability and retention in lower denture. It also reduces the amount of underlying tissue available for denture support [1,7]. The resorption of the residual alveolar ridges is a chronic, continuous, life-long catabolic process of bone remodelling. The rate of reduction in size of the residual ridge is maximum in the first three months and then gradually tapers off [8]. According to Boucher, during the first year after tooth extraction, the reduction in the residual ridge height in the mid sagittal plane is 2-3mm for maxilla and 4-5mm for mandible and the annual rate of reduction in ridge height is 0.1-0.2mm for mandible and this reduction in height of the ridge is four times less in the maxilla [1,8,9]. Many studies have shown that the poor retention and stability could be managed using a fixed prosthesis supported by five or six implants or by the fabrication of an overdenture to implants [9]. However, placing six implants in an atrophic mandible is not always possible. Therefore, the concept of using two or four implants to support an overdenture was introduced.

Overdenture is a therapeutic approach which is directed in improving the oral function in elderly edentulous patients [10]. The concept of overdenture initially involved fixing mechanical attachments to teeth roots to enhance retention and stability of conventional complete dentures [6,9]. With the evolution of implant overdentures, there is reduction in displacement of the prosthesis due to lateral forces leading to better retention and stability improving the masticatory function and overall quality of life [5,11,12]. Crum, Rooney [8] reported an average of 5.2mm loss in the alveolar ridge height in denture patients compared to overdenture patients where there is 0.6mm loss which is relatively low. According to McGill consensus, two-implant overdentures has been accepted as the gold standard treatment care for the edentulous mandible [5,13]. Various factors contribute to the success of an implant supported overdentures, including the fit and precision of dentures and the retentive capacity of its attachment system to provide long duration of function. Therefore, Retention is considered as one of the most significant factors in determining patient satisfaction in removable prosthodontics [9,14] and is defined as the force that resists withdrawal along the path of insertion and stabilizes the overdenture during its function [14,15].

Also, the choice of attachment is primarily dependent on the retention required, jaw morphology and anatomy, condition of the mucosal ridge, oral function and patient compliance for recall appointments. There are different attachments to retain implant supported overdentures. They were classified on the basis of their flexibility, geometrical shape and cross section, casting precision and manufacturing procedures. In one of the major classifications, these attachments are divided into splinted and unsplinted systems. Splinted systems includes the bar attachments whereas unsplinted systems includes magnets, ball types and locators [5,7,16,17].

Within these systems, self-aligning attachments (locators) and ball attachments have been frequently used due to their simplicity. Specifically, ball attachments are considered as one of the simplest type of attachments for clinical usage. It provides varying degrees of resiliency in both vertical and horizontal directions. Also, the specific design of the ball attachments may influence the amount of its free movement thereby limiting its resiliency [1,5,11,18]. The retention and the longevity of the attachments have been studied as a common problem in many clinical and in vitro studies. There are lot of studies evaluating the retentive force of different attachment systems in mandibular two-implant overdentures simulating different periods of clinical usage [6,7,11,19]. Some studies have comparatively evaluated the retention capacity of ball, bar and locator attachments in implant overdentures [19]. Studies have also compared retention between locator, ball and magnetic attachments [20].

Many studies have compared the retentive capacity of different color codings of a single attachment system [14,21]. Few authors have studied the retentive forces of the attachments by placing implants at different angulations [14,20]. Previous studies have evaluated the retentive force using micro material testing machine (MTM) [9,15], a dental mastication simulator [14,21], CS-Dental testing machine [16], load cell (cyclic fatigue machine) [22], Imada device (IM) [23,24] and Universal testing machine (UTM) [6,11,24] and among these methods Universal testing machine (UTM) has been accepted as reliable and valuable instrument to test the retention forces in vitro [6,11]. One of the main factors of retention loss is the change induced on the components of the attachment systems as a result of wear [6,11]. The factors which are associated with the clinical wear of attachments includes masticatory forces, parafunctions, temperature and composition of saliva, products used for the maintenance of denture and the presence of food residues [22]. The wear of overdenture retentive mechanisms has been identified as the most common prosthodontic complications which is about 33% [2].

In addition to the retentive forces, few studies have also evaluated the amount of wear and its effects in the attachment systems. Wear have been assessed using Metallographic microscope [25], Micro material testing machine (MTM) [15,26-28], Coordinate measuring machine (CMM) [18], Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) [14,29], and stereo microscopy [6,17]. The positioning of the implant overdenture attachments is very important for two-implant overdentures. This is because during pathological overloading, the bone around the implants becomes deformed and resorbed due to the increased stress and strain gradients [5]. This situation may cause incompatibility of the components of the implant system and microfracture of the implant [5]. Clinicians predicted that the two independent implants must be positioned at the same occlusal height, parallel to the occlusal plane [24]. However, placement of implants in the same occlusal height in completely edentulous patient is not always possible since the alveolar bone resorbs with different types of resorption patterns [5]. The rate of residual ridge resorption differs from person to person and even at different times and sites in the same person. Unlike in maxilla, the speed of bone loss in mandible is different in different parts of the jaw, distal parts of the residual ridge disappear faster than the anterior parts, which may affect the symmetry of the remaining bone height resulting in difficulty in placing the implants in position [8].

Few studies have evaluated the retention force of attachment systems retained by single or two implants and also at different abutment heights [30]. Ozan O and Ramoglu S have compared two different attachment systems in two-implant overdentures by evaluating the stress distribution in peri-implant site and on attachments by positioning implants in different height levels using the 3D Finite Element Analysis method [5]. Currently, studies comparatively evaluating the retention and wear behaviour of two-implant overdenture attachments with implants positioned at different height levels are lacking. In light of the above, the aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of implant height differences on the retention and wear behaviour of ball attachment system in mandibular two-implant overdentures. The null hypothesis for the present study was that implant height difference does not affect the retention and wear behavior of the dual implant overdenture attachments.

Materials and Methods

A rectangular block of dimensions 60mm x 20mm x 10mm, made of plaster of paris (Ramaraju Mills ltd., India) was custom made to serve as an index for the fabrication of wax blocks of similar dimensions and then to be converted into heat cure acrylic resin blocks of uniform dimensions to be used in this study. Addition silicone impression material of putty and light body consistencies (Aquasil, Denstply, USA) were used for obtaining the index in a single step procedure. The putty was hand mixed with equal quantities of base and catalyst to obtain homogenous dough. Light body material in a cartridge was attached to the auto mixing gun (Heraeus Kulzer, Dormagen, Germany). A spiral mixing tip (yellow 70mm , Adenta, USA) was attached to the cartridge tip and material was injected gently over the custom- made plaster block. The mixed putty was also placed over the plaster block and left undisturbed until set. After setting, the plaster block was removed from the index and the mold space area was inspected for defects and acceptability. The putty index thus obtained was used to fabricate the test samples of standardized dimensions for this study.

a) Master wax blocks(n=2),

b) Prosthetic wax blocks (n=20).

Modeling wax (Hindustan manufacturer, Hyderabad, India) (was melted and poured into the mold space created by the putty and was allowed to cool. After the wax had completely hardened, the wax blocks were retrieved carefully and placed at room temperature. Twenty-two such wax blocks of 60mm x 20mm x 10mm dimensions were fabricated in which two blocks were used as master blocks and twenty blocks were used as prosthetic blocks to conduct the study. Out of the two master blocks, in one block a height of 2mm was increased with wax on one half of the block exactly measured from the centre of the block. Similarly, out of the twenty prosthetic blocks, ten blocks were increased to a height of 2mm as it was done for the master blocks. Two implant analogs with the diameter of 4mm and height of 12.7mm (Norris dental implants, Israel) were positioned parallel to the insertion-removal path and to one another, on each of the master blocks using a dental surveyor (seshin precison Ind., co, korea). The master blocks were placed on the surveying platform of the surveyor and stabilized. The surveying platform was made parallel to the floor. The implant analogs were positioned into the wax blocks at a distance of 22mm from each other with equal distance from the centre of the block. The implant analogs were submerged into the wax block up to the crest module of the implant analogs (2 Master blocks with implant analogs and 20 Prosthetic blocks).

The two master blocks with the implant analogs and the twenty prosthetic blocks were fabricated using heat polymerized acrylic resin. The ball abutments of diameter 2.5mm and height 2mm (Noris Dental implants, Israel) were screwed into all the implant analogs embedded in the master blocks. Modelling wax was used to block the undercuts around the ball abutments in the master blocks. The metal housing of 5mm diameter and 3.2mm height along with nylon cap insert of standard retention (Noris Dental Implants) was placed over the ball abutments for picking it up onto the prosthetic block. The prosthetic blocks were now drilled with acrylic burs to create space for the metal housing with nylon cap inserts (Figure 1). In order to prevent the acrylic adhesion of two blocks, a thin layer of separating medium (Tejpal pharma and surgical, India), is applied on the master blocks. Clear autopolymerising acrylic resin (RR cold cure, DPI, India), was poured into the space created and the metal housings with the nylon cap insert placed over the ball abutments in the master blocks were picked up in the prosthetic blocks. Upon setting, the master block with ball abutment was retrieved from the prosthetic blocks with the metal housing and nylon cap insert. Twenty prosthetic blocks thus obtained were divided into two groups of ten blocks each according to the height difference.

1. Group I (n =10) Test samples for the implant analogs placed at same height.

2. Group II (n = 10) Test samples for the implant analogs placed at different height.

Each test sample was placed over the imaging platform of the stereo microscope prior to retention testing. Images were captured in a computer-controlled software system in 40x magnification at an object lens distance of about 13mm and the same magnification had been used for all the test samples (Figure 2). A total of twenty test samples were tested individually in the Universal testing machine (INSTRON 8874) (Figure 3) to measure the force required to separate the prosthetic block from the master block. Both the master block with ball abutment-implant analog assembly and the prosthetic test samples were positioned on the machine table and secured tightly into the upper and lower clamps of the universal testing machine. Engagement and disengagement of the attachments were carried out at right angles to the horizontal level of the blocks. The testing machine was programmed to apply 1440 cycles of insertion-removals. Assuming that a patient removes and inserts his prosthesis four times a day, the retention force values were noted at baseline, after 360 cycles (simulating 3 months of clinical use), 720 cycles (simulating 6 months of clinical use), 1080 cycles (simulating 9 months of clinical use) and after 1440 cycles (simulating one year of clinical use) The test samples were kept moist with artificial saliva throughout the testing as it acts as lubricant to simulate potential in-vivo conditions. The tests were conducted in an open room at room temperature.

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Monday, November 22, 2021

Iris Publishers-Open access Journal of Complementary & Alternative Medicine | What is the Relationship Between Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) and Coronavirus?

 


Authored by Sakhri Selma*

Defination

The vagus nerve, also known as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth pair of cranial nerves, involved in many functions of the body.

The sensory vagus nerve contains chemoreceptors sensitive to the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It innervates the tissues that are often the first points of contact for foreign pathogens, such as the lining of the esophagus, the gastrointestinal lining, the lungs and lymph nodes. The vagus nerve also innervates most other important organs of the trunk such as the spleen, liver, heart, bladder, and pancreas (Figure).

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is often a state of constant intense exhaustion that is not alleviated by rest or sleep. A diagnosis of CFS is given in the absence of alternative diagnostics. The prognosis is poor. The cause of CFS is unknown and the source of much controversy and debate. Previous studies on CFS patients have reported a variety of viral and even bacterial agents), as well as numerous immune system abnormalities. This hypothesis focuses on the location of an infection, along the sensory (afferent) of the vagus nerve. Hence CFS is explained by the sensory vagus nerve.

In the normal state:

The vagus nerve signals the body to rest when it detects a peripheral infection, this signal of fatigue is pathologically exaggerated when an infection is localized on the vagus nerve itself. More specifically, immune cells, including neuro-immune cells called glial cells, The vagus nerve detects infection and initiates the same basic neuro-excitatory response regardless of the type of infection. When the glial cells that surround the sensitive vagus nerve are activated by any virus or bacterial infection, their neuro exciting secretions intensify the signaling of the afferent vagus nerve, which is misinterpreted by the brain as evidence of a serious peripheral infection. The brain then initiates disease behavior, which includes fatigue and many other symptoms of CFS than it does: Tired, Insomnia, Fever, Loss of appetite, Musculoskeletal pain (myalgia), Hyperalgesia, Cognitive impairments, Depression / malaise, Zinc depletion and Loss of smell

The Coronavirus is a Neurotropic Virus

However, neurotropic viruses are the type of pathogen most often associated with CFS. Because covid-19 (coronavirus) is based on infection of the nervous tissue, this is probably not a coincidence:

This virus is characterized by its affinity to invade neural tissue. The afferent vagus nerve and associated glial cells are important targets for neurotropic virus infection and general immune responses. Neurotropic viruses are characterized by their ability to become latent, particularly in the lymph nodes of nervous and lymphoid tissues. Although the initial infection may have occurred during the first 10 years of life, neurotropic viruses can be reactivated even in healthier adults. Since these viruses tend to remain dormant until reactivation during stress or illness, it follows that CFS patients usually report that their symptoms started during a period of stress or with a normal cold or flu.

While latency tends to occur in nerve tissue, upon reactivation, viral infection spreads to the extracellular space. There, the satellite glial cells envelop the viral particles. These satellite glial cells proliferate and activate, releasing neuro-excitatory mediators such as immune proteins called pro-inflammatory cytokines. The version of pro-inflammatory cytokines is a general response from glia and other immune cells such as cells. producing interleukin (white blood cells) to meet any virus or bacteria. These locally released cytokines are detected by the nearest sensory vagus nerve chemoreceptors, causing a signal to the brain. The brain then initiates fatigue and several other symptoms that overlap with CFS. The premise of CFS is that when a neurotropic virus or any other pathogen infects the vagus nerve itself, cytokines are released directly to receptors in the sensitive vagus nerve and this immune system becomes pathologically intense.

The Direct Neurological Signs of the Coronavirus:

Loss of smell and taste, headache, loss of consciousness and cerebrovascular disorders in 80% of cases. These symptoms do not occur in all patients infected with Covid-19.

Indirect Neurological Signs of the Coronavirus:

Headache (8%), myalgia (11%), or even, mental confusion (9%), fever, respiratory disorder and cognitive fragility in the affected population.

Conclusion

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a specific mechanism for explaining the symptoms of covid-19, which should be used as a basis for treatment strategies. The vagus nerve is the conductor of all immune defense mechanisms. The basic use of biomedical imaging research for the location of an active viral infection such as covid-19 along the vagal pathway from the peripheral to the central nervous system would be of great importance in determining effective treatment. Functional studies of the vagus nerve should compare highly symptomatic patients with healthy controls.

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Friday, November 19, 2021

Iris Publishers-Open access Journal of Archives in Biomedical Engineering & Biotechnology | Prerequisites for the Moisture Supply of Agricultural Land to Achieve Ecological Pure Crops in Azerbaijan

 


Authored by Aliev ZH*

Abstract

The current information on moisture and the temperature of the ground in managerial system by production to agricultural produact necessary, in the first place, for taking the operative decisions at development ecological clean technology irrigation under growing agricultural cultures to achieve the maximum harvest.

Keywords: Aerospace methods; COW; Moisture; Moisture test; Arable; Soil; Ecology; Vafer humidity; Drill; Graduation; Tool; etc

(Figure) The increasing growing of the population in republic puts the problems, provision their provisions including product agricultural production. The known that in Azerbaijan, as from 50-yh years past centuries in broad scale is realized irrigation - ameliorative construction, which has got the big range after 70-h years.

The year for year was increased rates water economy construction.

As a result, this:

• irrigated area increased from 1200 thou. ha before 1400 thou. ha;

• total water withdrew increased on 9,8 mln. m3;

• an area, engulfed collector-drainage by network bringing before 400 thou. ha; (opening collector-drainage network - 273,0; closing - 115,0 thou. ha; and vertical drainage before 5 thou. ha).

Noticeably increased the harvest of the agricultural cultures, So for instance pat reached 30,8 c/hа; corn -24,7 c/ha and vegetables -204 c/hа. Alongside with reached success in water economy construction, in prospect follows to execute the following ameliorative of the action:

• a reconstruction to irrigation network in separate region of the republic;

• an improvement ameliorative conditions of the lands:

• increasing water provides agricultural cultures;

• a planning the lands;

• a construction small pools;

• a development and broad introducing the systems water protect few intensive of the technology and technologies of the irrigation agricultural cultures;

• -a mastering (for necessities agricultural production) of the additional areas, by introduction is blazed-irrigated husbandries;

• a realization to mechanizations and automations of the process of the irrigation agricultural cultures and etc.

• an using the progressive methods and technical facilities of the study of the condition of ground and receptions expressmeasurements agro ameliorative parameter and others (including aerospace measurement)

• an introduction to enabling technologies on production of the ecological clean product and increasing to productivities

Follows to note that efficiency of the use progressive water protect technologies of the irrigation and the further his developments in republic consists in that to develop and introduce in production the most latest achievements national and foreign science, technology and leading experience in purpose of the provision high rate production and increasing to their costperformance, all measured of the growing to capacity of the labour, culture level increasing of the husbandry, best use the production assets, improvements quality irrigation of the work and increasing to reliability of the applicable technology [1-5].

In connection with growth technique contamination surrounding ambiences, appears the problem of the reception to ecological clean product agricultural production. Full information needs for this about condition of ground, about their плодородии, about intensities of the contamination of ground chemical element, pesticides, radio nuclides etc., as well as dependency of this contamination from hydro meteorology of the conditions. Since ground-main natural facility production provisions. Moisture and temperature of the ground one of the main physical characteristic grounds, which define their fertility. Without presence necessary (required) amount water in ground and corresponding to temperature agricultural cultures do not sprout in general.

Moisture of ground influences upon dissolve, displacement and efficiency organic and mineral fertilizers, on degree of the contamination of ground pesticides and the other product techniques origins, on that, on how much agricultural plants will adopt bad for health of the people chemists. The current information on moisture and the temperature of the ground in managerial system by production to agricultural product necessary, in the first place, for taking the operative decisions at development ecological clean technology irrigation under growing agricultural cultures to achieve the maximum harvest.

There are in view of technological decisions (so for instance, agro techniques of the action) in questions main and before sowing of the processing of ground, practicability and periods of the sowing agricultural cultures, rates and periods irrigation and contributing the mineral fertilizers etc.

However, management body, science, production have far from full operative information on moisture of ground through lack of the necessary methods and technical facilities of their reception in branches agricultural production country. Besides, most exactly and operative possible was get information on moisture and the temperature of the ground by means of artificial companion, but this information is limited only by surface of the land or several centimeters upper layer ground. Here in after herewith got from cosmos data, necessary to recognize [6-10].

But this signifies necessary graduate sensors artificial companion land. That this realizes, necessary to have a reliable overland express-methods and technical facilities of the reception to information on moisture and temperature of the ground. Such methods of the facility must provide the reception to information in deep cut (though, on depth lied root system of the plants) and area agricultural fields). The most known method of the reception given about moisture of ground from her surfaces before depth 100-150 sm, layer through each 10 sm, is thermostat-weight (TW) method.

He presents the possibility to get given about moisture of ground for the whole depth lied cortex plants, which puts his untouchable with aerospace methods if the question is objective information in what, that determined point agricultural fields. But if the question is relative surface moistening of the whole field, that here already TW method, as well as any other overland way, cannot compete c aerospace methods and facility of the reception to this information.

Together with that, TW-method has a row defect, which do not promote that to use his as standard at graduation overland and aerospace instrument. Besides, spread of time measurements to moisture of ground forms 1,5-2 days. This brings about delay when taking the important technological decisions, under significant setting since or hot dry wind moisture ground for this time can essential image to change. Though, on her improvement, developments and introduction high-speed express instrument much study was organized for measurement of moisture of ground. However offered hitherto instruments (including neutron moisture meter VNP-1, “Agro tester”, high frequency moisture measure soil sample SVP-5, meter parameter ground VPG-1 and others) have not found broad spreading on the strength of the following objective reasons.

So, for instance: using VNP-1 requires installation on floor plant around pipes (metallic or plastic), which disturb the middle row to processing plowing cultures. High frequency moisture measure SVCH-5 not capable completely to change TW-method since for selection soil sample is used soil boer. The most adapting to condition of the use in agricultures “Agro tester” and VPG-1. Both instruments have a portable sensor-boer, to which connect the measuring block, but after measurements sensor and meter delete from field. “Agro tester” does not bear field test does not review inaccuracy measurements through inexactness of the measurements, in base which, prescribed method of the measurement of the complex resistance of ground in variable electric field (so-called conduct meter method). Here sensors of the instrument are made thereby that two round spiral to blades serves and facility of the submersion of the sensor on given depth and facility of the measurement i.e. capacitor, in which ambience between cover-blade is ground. But instrument VPG-1 shows comparatively acceptable outcome of trail and is recommended to introduction on hydro meteorology station country C.I.S. as far back as 80-90. However, on the strength of the other reasons he too has not found broad spread. For determination of moisture of ground on evidence VPG-1 is used enough uneasy methods. For indication of the evidence of the instrument is used micro ampere measure- instrument itself inexact, easy damaged in field condition [11-15].

For broad using VPG-1 necessary was vastly consolidate the design of the sensor, simplify the methods graduation and measurements, but in measuring block to use more reliable and more exact digital indication of the evidence of the instrument. The purpose of the removal aforesaid defect in 2001 given design was modified on VPG-4C which has exceeded TW-method on all factors, in that power and on accuracy given about moisture of ground on separate agriculture field (the land). The standard deviation herewith from given thermostat-weight of the method for VPG-4C formed 1,5 %.

This on 0,5% more exactly, than shows VNP-1 and on 1,0% more exactly VPG-1. But obtain this manages due to the fact that in process of the measurement to moisture applying new way measurements to electric capacity and moisture. Relies on that main way of the reception most external evidence about moisture of ground, in the opinion of many researchers, is TW-method. However herewith, as a rule, do not take into account that probe methods does not display on measured space field level to moisture therefore that moisture of ground is defined not 10-refer to layer of the whole field, occupied concrete agriculture by culture, but in that sample of ground only, which is selected for analysis in 40-50 gr aluminum bank. Moisture measures in ditto time instrument VPG- 4C in volume of ground, which reminds the form of the cylinder, height 10 sm and diameter 60 sm, but this was test by weight, beside 40-50 kg dry mass.

It must be assumed that similar defect photo optics moisture measure soil sample and portable IK- moisture measure IRMM- 106. To use both instruments for measurement of moisture necessary to take out the tests by soil boer. Moreover, these tests of the insufficient volume.

The advantage VPG-4C is concluded and hedgehog in that that her possible also to measure and the temperature of the ground. The particularity of this method is concluded that that he more sensitive to capacitive forming complex electro conductivity ground, than all known hitherto her predecessors.

It is necessary to note, at present in facilities and institutions of the agricultural profile to lead stale work, directed on collection, processing, conservation and transmission to information on surrounding ambience, condition of ground, plants etc. that requires the material expenses and big manual labor, which brings about essential fascination of the cost to information. The broad automation of the agricultural work with using modern computer technology has allowed not only amounts of the manual works of time, but reduce the cost to information and that particularities it is important, essential image to perfect her quality and operation.

The truth exist and foreign remote points as production of the finish company “Vaysal”, automated weather station general Israel - American production and automated meteorological station NPO “Agate” and others follows to note that nor one of considered systems not completely answers the problem and requirements agro meteorology since does not offer the real sensor for measurement of moisture of ground, without which automation of the measurements is an few effective.

The necessary development and introduction automated measuring systems for cathedral, processing, keeping and transmissions to information on condition of ground, connected with decision of the complex of the problems.

Here the most important is a measurement speaker’s moisture spare in ground. But without decision of the problems of the creation exact measure sensor to moisture of ground all deal to automations measurement other parameter of ground in agro amelioration, as particularly important for conditions of the mountain husbandry in region really turn out to be the few effective.

At presence sensor to moisture of ground already become important also sensors of the temperature, density, acidity and others parameter of ground. The broad automation of the measurements agro ameliorative parameter of ground can precede creation and introduction regional remote agro meteorology information-reference points, which allow to feel the sensors and measuring systems, process the material for the reason reduction of labour content and cost to source information about condition of ground.

It must be assumed that here in after state of working these points, possible easy automates with infrastructure observant meteorological zonal station. As a result of searching for of the decisions of the problems became known that NPO “Selta”, NPO “Agate”, ANAKA AN ARE, have comprised of kit of its system project meter to moisture of ground with using the perspective method infrared (IK) spectroscopy.

However, if take even fine film of ground by thickness several microns, that she is absolutely impervious for IK- rays. Pos s ibl e using the approach, founded on reflection IK- rays, but this approach on given time not it is enough not explored. Really method IK spectroscopy possible to use not only for determination of the contents of the miscellaneous material in composition mixture, but also in all events he and for determination other necessary parameter, also can is used in variant of the drive IK- rays through under investigation object.

Besides method IK- spectroscopy, pertains to more expensive and suitable to laboratory studies, rather than for development field express-instrument and automated remote device of the measurement to moisture of ground. However, on this cause, is considered reasonable acceptance in attention of the own opinions of the row scientist.

The results of the analysis of these studies prove that no united thought (the offers) comparatively principle of the building automated measuring systems in agro meteorology not only, but also hydro meteorology as a whole. The most making, for methods and facilities of the automatic checking hydro ameliorative parameter, on our glance is a finish company “Vaysal”, which offers the consumer certain automatic system for observation for condition many element weathers on the base specialized (meteorological) of the computer. However system of the company “Vaysal” is “locked” i.e. without special meteorological computer sensors of the company can be not used.

Besides, for the reason decisions of the similar problems, UKRNIGMI was designed automatic system of the checking parameter ground, which on many sign broader possibilities dominates the similar development of the company “Vaysal”. Since proposed UKRNIGMI system is open for any sensor and can be straight connected to computer network through standard relationship without additional connecting device.

The system will allow simultaneously to remove and send given from big amount sensor on distance before 10 km by means of cable and before 100 km and more with use the facility radio system. Besides graduation parameters sensor is provided bring in memory PC beforehand for constant keeping and remove given with 200-300 sensors for 1 second, rather then enter them before measurement by means of each separate sensor, what the company “Veysal” offers.

The author’s offer, for completing automated agro meteorology of the point sensors and measuring device (the own production) with the following parameter:

• moisture of the air (range 25-100%, at temperature from -4 before +500C)

• moisture of ground (range 4-40%, at temperature from 0 before +500С)

• a temperature of the air (the range from -50 before + 500 C);

• a temperature of ground (the range from -25 before + 500C);

• an photosynthetic to active radiation of the FAR (the range 0,38-0,70 maM) and other.

On description of the developer these sensors and functional converters “signal-voltage” is universal i.e. it for using suitable, as in automated measuring system, so and in separate discrete instrument. Except sensor of moisture and the temperature of ground, sensor of the temperature and moisture of the air, sensor of the FAR automated agro meteorology point (AAP-1) includes many-server analog-digital converter united with RS at cable, or through radio link. Computer provides processing and keeping agro meteorology to information. Base AAP-1 is completed 16 sensors.

In kit AAP-1 included sensors to moisture of ground for depths 10, 20, 30,..50 sm (5 piece), sensors of the temperature of the ground for depths 10, 20, 30,..50 sm (5 piece), sensors to moisture of the air (2 piece), sensors of the temperature of the air (2 piece) and sensors for measurement total and photosynthetic to active solar radiation (the FAR)- 2 piece.

Depending on request of the consumers amount channel can be increased before 64 and more for connection any amount sensor. This will not disturb work AAP since speed his that allows “to interview” before 200-300 sensors on length 1 seconds. Alongside with foregoing methods and exists the aerospace methods of the determination to moisture and temperature of ground.

On result called on by us analysis patent and research literature, denoted aerospace method of the checking the condition to surfaces of the land, in particular vegetation and ground gives the basis becomes firmly established that at development of the methods of such checking overland method and facility of the checking is conducted little attention.

Designed in this direction of the models of the estimation of the condition of the distance of the plants and ground on satellite data, which are based on law optometrists mainly, thermodynamics and other physical law, will always require experimental check in overland condition. А for this necessary reliable overland network of the checking condition plants and ground. However, herewith appear very complex and however, massive problems, connected with particularity aerospace and overland methods. The first particularity: much differ the separate ability (the area incidence) object aerospace sensor and overland facility.

So if sensors companion land cover the area to terrestrial surface, which has a form cola by diameter from group of ten of the meter before several kilometers, that thermostats - weight method can characterize the wad of the land by diameter before 3-4 sm, in ditto time sensors VPG- 4 c act in field, which has a form cola by diameter 60 sm and more. Relies on that if for cosmic sensor for separate ability to take the circle by diameter 10 ha, that volume of the sample for moisture to surfaces of ground for sensor companion will form 7,85*107 sm2, for VPG-4C - 2,826*103 sm2, but for TWmethod - only 7,1 sm2.

There is while one striking, way to take into account this particularity, this fascination on area of the number of the repetitions of the measurements instrument VPG-4C and, especially, determinations to moisture of ground TW-method.

On the other hand, by means of aerospace methods it is impossible get sharing the temperature and moisture of ground on depth before 1-1,5 m. In this case they while that no can change the overland facilities of the reception to information on moisture and temperature of the ground. The second particularity: aerospace data, as a rule, do not comply with overland at time and space. The known that path companion often does not comply with location existing network hydrometeorology station and points, which lead the overland observations for condition of atmosphere, plants and ground. The periods agro meteorology observations also, chalice whole, do not comply with current of time of the passing artificial companion on location station and points. To take into account this particularity there is two ways:

1. if well studied microclimate to particularities of the territory daily move agro meteorology of the factors, it is necessary to enter the corresponding to adjustments in given overland observations.

2. on route of the passing of the artificial companion beforehand to place the mobile agro meteorology points with increased the frequency of, then on hidro meteorology station period of the observations.

Such points allow not only more exactly fasten the overland observations to aerospace data, but can serve new, very efficient technical base for microclimate of the studies of the territory.

The third particularity: Different physical principles prescribed in base overland and aerospace facilities of the measurement. In aerospace method and facility of the measurement are used several ways of the measurement parameter laying under surfaces of the land. This registration reflected radiation in seen part spectrum, in infrared (IK) range and in radio-frequency radio diapason, as well as fixation natural gamma-radiations to surfaces of the land.

In instrument VPG-4C applying conduct meter way of the measurement to capacities of ground in variable electric current. TW-method is founded on weight drying and determination amount vaporized water. Each of three above mention methods has their own advantage and defect. The advantage of the aerospace methods consists in therefore that they high-speed and cover the greater territory. But they else have a defect in that that by means of their it is impossible get distribution an agro meteorology factors in deep cut before 1-1,5 m that that there is advantage of the overland facilities. The instrument VPG-4C has that superiority before TWmethod that he characterizes the test of ground by volume 28 liters, but TW-method -only 22 milliliters.

TW-method except named above defect has its main advantage over VPG-4C and aerospace methods. His advantage consists in that that he directs method and serves the facility graduation, both soils moisture meter, and aerospace facilities measurement to moisture of ground. However, attempt graduation cosmic sensors only by means of TW-method can be unsuccessful unless use VPG-4C as intermediate facility. There by, necessary such correlation in use all that methods to possible was gets the most objective information on moisture of ground.

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